Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran) is situated in the Middle East. It was geographically known as Persia until as recently as the twentieth century. In the North it is bordered by the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan (not to be confused with its own Iranian Azerbaijan region), Armenia, Nakhchivan and Turkmenistan. To the West lie Turkey and Iraq. Its southern boundaries extend to the scenic shores of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. It is adjacent to Afghanistan and Pakistan in the East. Its Capital city is Tehran. There are 31 Provinces, 324 counties (shahrestans), 89 cities in Iran. Persian (Farsi) is spoken by the majority of Iranians. A large percentage of millennial Iranians speak moderate to advanced English. Tourist information is available in English at many hotels and cultural attractions. The Perso-Arabic alphabet is the national standard. However, some signs, menus and general information are posted in English.